In parallel with the liberalization of the energy markets, the decentralized generation of electrical power as well as energy storage becomes more and more important. The management of these energy resources near to the consumers offers economic and ecological benefits. They can sometimes provide heating and/or cooling services as well as electricity.

In this context, interest is also directed to non-conventional operation modes such as so-called virtual power plants (VPP) and micro-grids.

A virtual power plant is a collection of decentralized generation and storage units that are monitored, aggregated and controlled by a central entity in view of providing higher efficiency and more flexibility.

Available standards

Layer

Standard

Title and comments

Component

 

Photovoltaic (PV) systems - Requirements for testing, documentation and maintenance

Component

IEC 61000-4-30

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-30: Testing and measurement techniques – Power quality measurement methods

Component

IEC 61727

Photovoltaic (PV) systems – Characteristics of the utility interface

Component

IEC TS 62257 series

Recommendations for renewable energy and hybrid systems for rural electrification

Component

IEC 60364 series

Low-voltage electrical installations

Component

IEC 61400 series

Wind turbines

Component

IEC 60364-5-55

Electrical installations of buildings – Part 5-55: Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Other equipment

NOTE Especially the two following subclauses:

– 551.6 Additional requirements for installations where the generating set provides a supply as a switched alternative to the normal supply to the installation

– 551.7 Additional requirements for installations where the generating set may operate in parallel with other sources including systems for distribution of electricity to the public

Component

IEC TS 62749

Assessment of power quality – Characteristics of electricity supplied by public networks

Component

IEC 61400-21

Wind turbines – Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines

Component

IEC 61400-27-1

Wind turbines – Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models – Wind turbines

Component

IEC 61000-4-30

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-30: Testing and measurement techniques – Power quality measurement methods

Other specifications

Component

EN 50438

Requirements for micro-generating plants to be connected in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks

NOTE In Europe EN 50438 provides requirements for connection of micro-generators (currently under revision). Draft TS for larger units currently are being prepared by WG3 of Cenelec TC8X, which specifies the generic requirements for connecting DG to the public distribution network.

Component

CLC TS 50549-1

Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks - Part 1: Connection to a LV distribution network above 16 A

Component

CLC TS 50549-2

Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks - Part 2: Connection to a MV distribution network

Component

IEEE Std. 1547.1 a

Standard for Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

Published in 2005, this standard further describes the testing of the interconnection in order to determine whether or not it conforms to standards.

Component

IEEE Std. 1547.2 a

Application Guide for IEEE 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

This provides a technical background on the standard.

Component

IEEE Std. 1547.3 a

Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange and Control of Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems

Published in 2007, this standard details techniques for monitoring of distributed systems.

Component

IEEE Std 1547.4 a

Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems

Component

IEEE Std 1547.6 a

Recommended Practice For Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems Distribution Secondary Networks

Component

IEEE Std 1547.7 a

Guide to Conducting Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed Resource Interconnection

a In the US, the IEEE 1547 series is a set of standards concerning Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. Since 2003, three standards in the IEEE 1547 Series have been released by the IEEE and another three are still in the draft phase. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 established IEEE 1547 as the national standard for the interconnection of distributed generation resources. An amendment IEEE 1547a was published in 2014.

Coming standards

Layer

Standard

Title and comments

Component

IEC 62786 a

Component

IEC 62898 seriesa

Microgrids

Other specifications

Component

IEEE P1547

Draft Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources with Associated Electric Power Systems Interfaces

(full revision of IEEE Std 1547)

Component

IEEE P1547.8

(draft) Recommended Practice for Establishing Methods and Procedures that Provide Supplemental Support for Implementation Strategies for Expanded Use of IEEE Standard 1547

a Under preparation.